Elephant Database
African Elephant Specialist Group

Democratic Republic of Congo
2016 African Elephant Status Report

All Years for Democratic Republic of Congo: 201620132007200219981995

Summary Totals for Democratic Republic of Congo

Estimates from SurveysGuesses% Known and
Possible Range
Area (km2)
Survey categoryEstimate± 95% CLFromTo
Aerial Total Counts1,7181.73,739
Aerial Sample Counts35532.04,374
Other Dung Counts02,8293,3437.917,707
Informed Guesses415051,02512.527,979
Other Guesses3,1653,88515.434,484
Degraded Data1,3041,30411.826,450
Totals 20151,794527,8039,557  
Totals 20066,5074,08012,89713,569  
Assessed Range51.4114,733
Unassessed Range48.6108,515
Total Range100223,248

Summary Totals for Democratic Republic of Congo

Data Category Definite Probable Possible Speculative
Aerial or Ground Total Counts1,718000
Direct Sample Counts and Reliable Dung Counts453530
Other Dung Counts02,1719150
Informed Guesses410505520
Other Guesses51004,469
Totals 20151,8142,2241,4734,989
Totals 20062,4267,9558,8554,457

Interpretation of Changes in Estimates from Previous Report

 Estimates from SurveysGuessesArea
Cause of Change Estimate ± 95% CL From To% Known and PossibleTotal
Repeat Survey-118±53-195-3722.04,374
New Population+200+768+1,85215.434,464
Different Technique-4,636±4,081-845-1,2953.68,106
Different Area00-987-9875.111,387
New Guess+210-3,115-2,4908.318,608
Population Lost00-120-1200.00
Data Degraded00000.00
No Change000016.937,794
Totals-4,713±4,081-4,494-3,41251.4114,733

Interpretation of Changes in Estimates from Previous Report

Cause of Change Definite Probable Possible Speculative
Repeat Survey-149+31-135-177
New Population+20+470+762+570
Different Technique-504-4,081-4,081-845
Different Area0-987-4600
New Guess+210-3,020-125
Population Lost000-120
Totals-612-4,567-6,934-697

Interpretation of Changes in Estimates from Previous Report (2007 scaling)

Cause of Change Definite Probable Possible Speculative
Repeat Survey-149+39-144+135
New Population+20+590+811-435
Different Technique-504-5,121-4,344+645
Different Area0-1,239-4900
New Guess+210-3,215+95
Population Lost000+92
Totals-612-5,731-7,382+532

Area of Range Covered by Each Data Category (km²)

Data CategoryKnown RangePossible RangeTotal Range
Aerial or Ground Total Counts3,73903,739
Direct Sample Counts and Reliable Dung Counts3,2521,1224,374
Informed Guesses20,6937,28627,979
Other Dung Counts17,52518217,707
Other Guesses55,5385,39760,934
Unassessed Range45,66662,849108,515
Totals146,41276,836223,248

Democratic Republic of Congo: Elephant Estimates

Cause ofSurvey Details2 Number of Elephants Area Map Location
Input ZoneChange1TypeReliab.YearEstimate95% C.L. SourcePFS3 (km²) Lon. Lat.
+ Bili Uere Hunting Zone (Bili-Gangu Sector)NPDCC2012365 217Hart, 201424,390 25.2E 4.3N
NPDCC2012365 217Hart, 20144,390 25.2E 4.3N
+ BushimaePLOE20100IUCN PAPACO, 201024,870 22.9E 7.7S
PLOE20100IUCN PAPACO, 20104,870 22.9E 7.7S
Garamba Ecosystem
+ Garamba EcosystemDTATA20141,718Mònico, 201423,581 29.4E 3.9N
DTATA201450Mònico, 2014257 29.4E 3.9N
DTATA20140Mònico, 2014372 29.4E 3.9N
DTATA201432Mònico, 2014265 29.4E 3.9N
DTATA20140Mònico, 2014333 29.4E 3.9N
DTATA2014393Mònico, 2014164 29.4E 3.9N
DTATA201427Mònico, 2014155 29.4E 3.9N
DTATA201492Mònico, 2014194 29.4E 3.9N
DTATA201457Mònico, 2014187 29.4E 3.9N
DTATA20140Mònico, 2014142 29.4E 3.9N
DTATA201424Mònico, 2014231 29.4E 3.9N
DTATA201436Mònico, 2014101 29.4E 3.9N
DTATA2014477Mònico, 2014131 29.4E 3.9N
DTATA2014428Mònico, 2014472 29.4E 3.9N
DTATA201499Mònico, 2014504 29.4E 3.9N
DTATA20143Mònico, 201473 29.4E 3.9N
+ Garamba Surrounding AreaDTOE2014206Mònico, 201424,118 29.5E 4.3N
DTOE2014206Mònico, 20144,118 29.5E 4.3N
Kahuzi-Biega
+ Kahuzi-Biega (Lowland) National ParkNPOE201050 50*Plumptre, pers. comm., 201026,138 27.9E 2.0S
NPOE201050 50*Plumptre, pers. comm., 20106,138 27.9E 2.0S
+ Kahuzi Biega National ParkNGOE201020Plumptre, pers. comm., 20103584 28.7E 2.3S
NGOE201020Plumptre, pers. comm., 2010584 28.7E 2.3S
+ Lomako Yokokala Faunal Reserve - Western SectionNPDCC2014105 40Maputla, 201521,206 21.0E 1.0N
NPDCC2014105 40Maputla, 20151,206 21.0E 1.0N
+ Luama Hunting ZoneNGOD201321Mubalama, pers. comm., 201329,469 28.2E 4.5S
NGOD201321Mubalama, pers. comm., 20139,469 28.2E 4.5S
+ Maiko National Park and Surrounding AreaNGOE2015100 650*Nixon & Plumptre, pers. comm., 2016111,508 27.2E 0.3S
NGOE2015100 650*Nixon & Plumptre, pers. comm., 201611,508 27.2E 0.3S
+ Okapi Faunal ReserveDADCC20111,701 888Vosper et al., 2012112,787 28.5E 1.5N
DADCC20111,701 888Vosper et al., 201212,787 28.5E 1.5N
+ Rubi Tele Hunting ZoneNPOD20115 20*Hart, 201423,100 24.8E 2.5N
NPOD20115 20*Hart, 20143,100 24.8E 2.5N
Salonga
+ Salonga National Park-DCE20041,186 692Blake, 2005125,141 21.2E 2.1S
-DCE20041,186 692Blake, 200525,141 21.2E 2.1S
+ Salonga Outside-OE20062,800Hart, 2006125,140 21.1E 2.5S
-OE20062,800Hart, 200625,140 21.1E 2.5S
+ Sankuru Natural ReserveNPOD20090Liengola et al., 2009223,161 24.1E 2.8S
NPOD20090Liengola et al., 200923,161 24.1E 2.8S
+ Swa KibulaNPOD201220Mbende et al., 2012212,326 17.7E 7.4S
NPOD201220Mbende et al., 201212,326 17.7E 7.4S
+ Tshuapa Lomami LandscapeNPOD2008500 500*Hart, 2009140,000 25.0E 2.6S
NPOD2008500 500*Hart, 200940,000 25.0E 2.6S
+ Upemba National ParkNGOE201140 20*Hasson, pers. comm., 2013111,370 26.6E 8.9S
NGOE201140 20*Hasson, pers. comm., 201311,370 26.6E 8.9S
Virunga
+ Virunga (Mikeno) National Park-OE200343Gray, pers. comm., 20053256 29.5E 1.4S
-OE200343Gray, pers. comm., 2005256 29.5E 1.4S
+ Virunga (North & Central) National ParkRSASB201435 60Wanyama et al., 201424,810 29.5E 0.5S
RSASB201435 60Wanyama et al., 20144,810 29.5E 0.5S
+ Virunga (South) National Park-OE200275Mubalama, pers. comm., 200321,290 29.2E 1.4S
-OE200275Mubalama, pers. comm., 20031,290 29.2E 1.4S

* Range of informed guess

1Key to Causes of Change (only tracked since 2007): DA: Different Area; DD: Data Degraded; DT: Different Technique; NA: New Analysis; NG: New Guess; NP: New population; PL: Population Lost; RS: Repeat Survey (RS ́ denotes a repeat survey that is not statistically comparable for reasons such as different season); –––: No Change

2Key to Survey Types: AC: Aerial Count, not specified; AS: Aerial Sample Count; AT: Aerial Total Count; DC: Dung Count; EX: Extrapolation from GIS; GD: Genetic Dung Count; GS: Ground Sample Count; GT: Ground Total Count; IG: Informed Guess; IR: Individual Registration; OG: Other Guess. Survey Type is followed by an indicator of survey quality, ranked from 1 to 3 (best to worst). Survey Reliability is keyed A-E (best to worst) as outlined in this table.

3PFS: Priority for Future Surveys, ranked from 1 to 5 (highest to lowest). Based on the precision of estimates and the proportion of national range accounted for by the site in question, PFS is a measure of the importance and urgency for future population surveys. All areas of unassessed range have a priority of 1. See Introduction for details on how the PFS is derived.

Note that totals for the Definite, Probable, and Possible categories are derived by pooling the variances of individual estimates, as described at http://www.africanelephantdatabase.org/reliability. As a result, totals do not necessarily match the simple sum of the entries within a given category.

IUCNSpecies Survival Commission

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