Elephant Database
African Elephant Specialist Group

Democratic Republic of Congo
Provisional African Elephant Population Estimates: update to 31 Dec 2013

All Years for Democratic Republic of Congo: 201620132007200219981995

Summary Totals for Democratic Republic of Congo

Estimates from SurveysGuesses% Known and
Possible Range
Area (km2)
Survey categoryEstimate± 95% CLFromTo
Aerial Sample Counts3475712.14,732
Other Dung Counts03,5175,72818.541,316
Informed Guesses1,7293,5054,16412.628,138
Other Guesses2,9102,98011.425,408
Degraded Data1181180.71,546
Totals 20152,07657010,04912,989  
Totals 20066,5284,08012,89713,569  
Assessed Range45.3101,141
Unassessed Range54.7122,107
Total Range100223,248

Summary Totals for Democratic Republic of Congo

Data Category Definite Probable Possible Speculative
Direct Sample Counts and Reliable Dung Counts05715710
Other Dung Counts03,2521,1470
Informed Guesses1,72903,505659
Other Guesses0003,028
Totals 20131,7293,8235,2233,687
Totals 20062,4477,9558,8554,457

Interpretation of Changes in Estimates from Previous Report

 Estimates from SurveysGuessesArea
Cause of Change Estimate ± 95% CL From To% Known and PossibleTotal
Repeat Survey+173±572-195-3722.14,732
New Population00+703+1,7079.320,817
Different Area00-987-9875.111,387
New Guess-4,625±4,081-1,335-1,6717.717,129
Data Degraded00000.1256

Interpretation of Changes in Estimates from Previous Report

Cause of Change Definite Probable Possible Speculative
Repeat Survey-155+328+505-177
New Population0+365+722+570
Different Area0-987-4600
New Guess-544-4,081-4,101-1,206
Data Degraded000+43

Interpretation of Changes in Estimates from Previous Report (2007 scaling)

Cause of Change Definite Probable Possible Speculative
Repeat Survey-159+310+550-177
New Population0+345+787+570
Different Area0-932-5010
New Guess-559-3,854-4,467-1,206
Data Degraded000+43

Area of Range Covered by Each Data Category (km²)

Data CategoryKnown RangePossible RangeTotal Range
Direct Sample Counts and Reliable Dung Counts2,7531,9794,732
Informed Guesses13,07215,06628,138
Other Dung Counts40,68663041,316
Other Guesses25,3671,58726,954
Unassessed Range64,53457,573122,107

Democratic Republic of Congo: Elephant Estimates

Cause ofSurvey Details2 Number of Elephants Area Map Location
Input ZoneChange1TypeReliab.YearEstimate95% C.L. SourcePFS3 (km²) Lon. Lat.
+ Bili Uere Hunting Zone (Bili-Gangu Sector) NPDCC2012365 217Hart, 201424,390 25.2E 4.3N
NPDCC2012365 217Hart, 20144,390 25.2E 4.3N
+ BushimaeNGOE20100IUCN PAPACO, 201024,870 22.9E 7.7S
NGOE20100IUCN PAPACO, 20104,870 22.9E 7.7S
+ Garamba EcosystemNGOD20121,708 139*Bolanos, 201223,010 29.4E 4.0N
NGOD20121,708 139*Bolanos, 20123,010 29.4E 4.0N
+ Kahuzi-Biega (Lowland) National ParkNPOE201050 50*Plumptre, pers. comm., 201026,138 27.9E 2.0S
NPOE201050 50*Plumptre, pers. comm., 20106,138 27.9E 2.0S
+ Kahuzi Biega (Upland) National ParkNGOE201020Plumptre, pers. comm., 20103584 28.7E 2.3S
NGOE201020Plumptre, pers. comm., 2010584 28.7E 2.3S
+ Luama Hunting ZoneNGOD201321Mubalama, pers. comm., 201329,469 28.2E 4.5S
NGOD201321Mubalama, pers. comm., 20139,469 28.2E 4.5S
+ Maiko National Park-OD20053,000Hart, 2006110,830 27.6E 0.4S
-OD20053,000Hart, 200610,830 27.6E 0.4S
+ Okapi Faunal ReserveDADCC20111,701 1,112Vosper et al., 2012112,787 28.5E 1.5N
DADCC20111,701 1,112Vosper et al., 201212,787 28.5E 1.5N
+ Rubi Tele Hunting ZoneNPOD20115 20*Hart, 201423,100 24.8E 2.5N
NPOD20115 20*Hart, 20143,100 24.8E 2.5N
+ Salonga National Park-DCC20041,186 692Blake, 2005125,141 21.2E 2.1S
-DCC20041,186 692Blake, 200525,141 21.2E 2.1S
+ Salonga Outside-OE20062,800Hart, 2006125,140 21.1E 2.5S
-OE20062,800Hart, 200625,140 21.1E 2.5S
+ Tshuapa Lomami LandscapeNPOD2008500 500*Hart, 2009140,000 25.0E 2.6S
NPOD2008500 500*Hart, 200940,000 25.0E 2.6S
+ Upemba National ParkNGOE201140 20*Hasson, pers. comm., 2013111,370 26.6E 8.9S
NGOE201140 20*Hasson, pers. comm., 201311,370 26.6E 8.9S
+ Virunga (Mikeno) National Park-OE200343Gray, pers. comm., 20053256 29.5E 1.4S
-OE200343Gray, pers. comm., 2005256 29.5E 1.4S
+ Virunga (North & Central) National ParkRSASB2010347571Plumptre et al., 201024,147 29.6E 0.1S
RSASB2010296 631Plumptre et al., 20102,597 29.6E 0.1S
RSASB201051 108Plumptre et al., 20101,550 29.6E 0.1S
+ Virunga (South) National Park-OE200275Mubalama, pers. comm., 200321,290 29.2E 1.4S
-OE200275Mubalama, pers. comm., 20031,290 29.2E 1.4S

* Range of informed guess

1Key to Causes of Change (only tracked since 2007): DA: Different Area; DD: Data Degraded; DT: Different Technique; NA: New Analysis; NG: New Guess; NP: New population; PL: Population Lost; RS: Repeat Survey (RS ́ denotes a repeat survey that is not statistically comparable for reasons such as different season); –––: No Change

2Key to Survey Types: AC: Aerial Count, not specified; AS: Aerial Sample Count; AT: Aerial Total Count; DC: Dung Count; EX: Extrapolation from GIS; GD: Genetic Dung Count; GS: Ground Sample Count; GT: Ground Total Count; IG: Informed Guess; IR: Individual Registration; OG: Other Guess. Survey Type is followed by an indicator of survey quality, ranked from 1 to 3 (best to worst). Survey Reliability is keyed A-E (best to worst) as outlined in this table.

3PFS: Priority for Future Surveys, ranked from 1 to 5 (highest to lowest). Based on the precision of estimates and the proportion of national range accounted for by the site in question, PFS is a measure of the importance and urgency for future population surveys. All areas of unassessed range have a priority of 1. See Introduction for details on how the PFS is derived.

Note that totals for the Definite, Probable, and Possible categories are derived by pooling the variances of individual estimates, as described at http://www.africanelephantdatabase.org/reliability. As a result, totals do not necessarily match the simple sum of the entries within a given category.

IUCNSpecies Survival Commission

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